The lower Himalayan range, also known as the lesser Himalayas, middle Himalayas, or Himachal, is the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The lower Himalayan range is parallel to Pakistan’s Indus River across the North, including countries like Nepal, India, and Bhutan. Not only this, but the lower Himlayan range also parallels the southern lower Shiwalik or Churia Range (Outer Himalaya).
The elevation of the mountain lying in the lower Himalayan range is between 3,700 and 4,500 m (12,000 to 14,500 feet). For a precise understanding, the heart of south-central Asia has several mountains in the lower range, known as the lower Himalayan mountain range.
There are different interesting facts that you should know about the lower Himalayan range. Make sure to read till the end of this article to know more!
What you need to know about the Lower Himalayan Range
The south-central Asian Himalayan range, also known as the lower Himalayan range, has an elevation of 3,700 to 4,500 (12,000 to 14,500 feet). The Main Boundary Thrust is a fault system that causes the slopes of this Himalayan range to be steep. However, the slopey nature of the range benefits the inhabitants as it gives way to supporting upland pastures and terraced fields. There are cereal-based agricultural industries that give way to the growth of seasonal herding and cold-tolerant crops, including potatoes, which are commonly found and grown in this range.
Nepal’s middle hills fall in this range and are densely populated by people from Newar, Magar, Gurung, Tamang, Rai, and Limbu who have Tibeto-Burman origins. Similarly, people in Nepal who live here also have connections to Indo-European Hindus called Paharis and include castes like Brahmin and Kshetriya or Chhetri.
The lower terrain in the south includes Tharu and Maithili people, who were, in older times, prone to malaria due to the comparatively hot climate. This, however, has helped the Aboriginal people to boost their immunity better than any other community in Nepal.
Pir Panjal range and Dhaula Dhar ranges are the most significant mountain ranges in the Lower Himalayan range. In India, the valley includes Kashmir Valley, or Kangra and Kullu Valleys in Himachal Pradesh, Sapta Kosi, Sikkim, Bhutan, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi hills, along the Mahabharat range in Nepal, which happens to be the continuation of the Mussoorie Range in the eastern Koshi river.
Climate and Weather in the Lower Himalayan Range
The temperature of the lower Himalayan range remains around forty degrees Celsius from April to summer monsoon, especially in the plains of India. However, the weather or climate is ten to fifteen degrees cooler in the Himachal range or the Hill station areas. The Hill stations in the lower Himalayan range were developed by the early Indian Mughal and British rulers to withstand the summer. On the other hand, there are no hill stations in Nepal and Bhutan because it does not get as hot in these countries.
About important ranges in the Lower Himalayan Range
The major and important ranges in the lower Himalayan range include the Pir Panjal range, the Zaskar range, the Dhauladhar range, the Mussoorie range, and the Mahabharat range. Among these ranges, the Pir Panjal range has the most significance as it is the longest range in the lower Himalayan range. This range stretches from the east to the west. It goes along 300 kilometers from the Jhelum River to the upper Beas River. The Pir Panjal range is mostly made out of volcanic rocks, and the elevation goes above 5000m. This range is also famously known as the Galyat Mountains.
The Zaskar or Zanskar range is situated in northern India and China’s western Tibet Autonomous Region. It parts Kashmir from Ladakh. This range also acts as the border to the Jammu region and the Vale of Kashmir. Nanga Parbat is located in the Zas.kar range.
Queen of the Hills, or Mussoorie range, is one of the most popular hill stations in India. A British man, Captain Frederick Young or FJ Shore, found the ridge just above the Doon Valley in 1827. He discovered the pleasant and cool nature of the ridge appealing. Ever since, it has become a hill station. The highest elevation of the Mussoorie range is 2,275 m (7,464 ft), of Lal Tibba.
Likewise, the Mahabharat range has a height of 1,500 to 3,000 meters. It goes east from Nepal to Sikkim and Bhutan. This range plays the role of a hydrographic barrier crossed by various smaller rivers.
Significance of the Lower Himalayan Range
The lower Himalayan range has deposits of crystalline, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks that date back to the Paleozoic and Mesozoic periods, like schists, limestones, and quartzites. There is evidence of glaciation in the past, even in these rocks. The snow line ranges from 4,500 meters in the east and 5,000 meters in the west. There are smaller glaciers in the Pir Panjal range. The tributaries of the Ganges form extensive river bodies throughout the lower Himalayan range. There is a high water phase in the lower Himalayan range as a result of melted snow and monsoon rainfall.
There are also several monsoon forests, hard-leaved evergreen and coniferous forests, evergreen oak forests, coniferous and broadleaf forests, and coniferous forests in this range. Additionally, you are likely to find floras like scrub junipers and rhododendron thickets, subalpine meadows, alpine meadows, Citrus fruit, and tea plantations.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Which range is known as the Lower Himalayas?
Himachal is known as the lower Himalayas.
What is the Himalayan 3 range?
The Lower Himalayas, the Tibetan Himalayas, and the Great Himalayas are the 3 Himalayan ranges.
Is Pir Panjal part of Himalayas?
The Pir Panjal is the largest part of the lower Himalayas.
Which is the youngest and lowest range of the Himalayas?
The lower Himalayas are the youngest and the lowest range of Himalayas.
What is Pir Panjal Range also called?
Pir Panjal range is also called Peer ki Galli.